School of Dentistry, Oral Health and Systemic Disease, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA. g0haji01( at ) louisville.edu
The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis undermines major components of innate immunity, such as complement, Toll-like receptors (TLR), and their crosstalk pathways.
At least in principle, these subversive activities could promote the adaptive fitness of the entire periodontal biofilm community. In this regard, the virulence factors responsible for complement and TLR exploitation (gingipain enzymes, atypical lipopolysaccharide molecules, and fimbriae) are released as components of readily diffusible membrane vesicles, which can thus become available to other biofilm organisms.
This review summarizes important immune subversive tactics of P. gingivalis which might enable it to exert a supportive impact on the oral microbial community.