Drinking habits…the dental plaque microbial community

The Silent Role of Biofilms in Chronic Disease Forums Biofilm Community The DENT Connection Drinking habits…the dental plaque microbial community

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    • #2787 Score: 0
        2 pts

        Signoretto C, Bianchi F, Burlacchini G, Sivieri F, Spratt D, Canepari P.

        Dipartimento di Patologia-Sezione di Microbiologia, Università di Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy; and Division of Microbial Diseases, Eastman Dental Institute, University College of London, London WC1X 8LD, United Kingdom.

        Caries and gingivitis are the most prevalent infectious diseases of humans and are due to the accumulation of dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) on tooth surface and at the gingival margin, respectively. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that many natural components of foods and beverages inhibit the adhesion of and/or exert an antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria. These biological activities have been attributed mainly to the polyphenol fraction. In order to explore the possibility that diet can alter the dental plaque community, in this study we evaluated the composition of the microbiota of supra- and subgingival plaque collected from 75 adult subjects with different drinking habits (drinkers of coffee, or red wine or water for two years at least) by analysing the microbial population through separation of PCR-amplified fragments using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique.

        The mean numbers of the bands of the DGGE profiles from all the three categories was evaluated. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of plaque collected from the control (water) group and this group showed the highest number of bands (supragingival = 18.98+/-3.16 and subgingival = 18.7+/-3.23). The coffee and wine drinker groups generated the lowest numbers of bands for both supra- (coffee = 8.25+/-3.53 and wine = 7.93+/-2.55) and sub-gingival (coffee = 8.3+/-3.03 and wine = 7.65+/-1.68) plaque. The differences between coffee drinkers or wine drinkers vs. the control (water) group, respectively, were statistically significant.

        A total of 34 microorganisms were identified and their frequency of distribution into the three subject categories was analyzed. A greater percentage of subjects were positive for facultative aerobes when supragingival plaque was analyzed while anaerobes were more frequent in subgingival samples. Relevantly, the frequency of anaerobe identification was significantly reduced when coffee and wine drinkers were compared with the subjects of the control group.

        DGGE profiles of both plaques samples from all groups were generated and used to construct dendrograms. A number of distinct clusters of water or coffee or wine drinkers were formed. The clustering of the some of DGGE results into cohort specific clusters implies similarities in the microbiota within these groups and relevant differences in the microbiota between cohorts. This supports the notion that the drinking habits of the subjects may influence the microbiota at both a supraginigival and subgingival level.

      • #3445 Score: 0
          2 pts

          More on this subject. This is good news for those of you that consume foods and drinks rich on catechins. A few comments:

          – red wine is rich in catechins, but some reds have more than others. Region and type decide this. White wines have less.

          – many bacteria can form their own biofilms without help. This abstract hints that Eikenella corrodens has its own super-duper powers, but it’s not unique by any measure.

          – many natural foods and substances are “quorum inhibitors.” Duh.

          Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(12):2445-50. Epub 2010 Dec 7.

          The inhibitory effects of catechins on biofilm formation by the periodontopathogenic bacterium, Eikenella corrodens.

          Matsunaga T, Nakahara A, Minnatul KM, Noiri Y, Ebisu S, Kato A, Azakami H.

          Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan.


          Eikenella corrodens is a periodontopathogenic bacterium that forms biofilm even by itself. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of catechins on E. corrodens biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was inhibited by the addition of 1 mM of the catechins with the pyrogallol-type B-ring and/or the galloyl group. The catechins with the galloyl group were effective at smaller doses than those with only the pyrogallol-type B-ring. An inhibitory effect was observed even when these catechins and gallic acid were added at sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) or at concentrations that showed no bactericidal effect.

          These results suggest that some catechins at sub-MIC might inhibit biofilm formation. No inhibitory effect of catechins at sub-MIC on biofilm formation was observed in the luxS deletion mutant. Our studies suggest that some species of catechins with the galloyl group affect autoinducer 2-mediated quorum sensing and thereby inhibit biofilm formation by E. corrodens.

        • #2788 Score: 0
            2 pts

            Coffee and Tea Drinkers Less Likely to Carry MRSA

            By Todd Neale, Senior Staff Writer, MedPage Today
            July 13, 2011


            People who drink hot tea or coffee are less likely to carry methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in their noses, researchers found.
            Drinking either beverage was associated with about a 50% relative reduction in the odds of nasal MRSA carriage, and drinking both was associated with a 67% reduction, according to Eric Matheson, MD, of the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, and colleagues.

            The findings, reported in the July/August issue of Annals of Family Medicine, “raise the possibility of a promising new method to decrease MRSA nasal carriage that is safe, inexpensive, and easily accessible,” they wrote.

            The clinical importance of the finding is not entirely clear, however, as the relationship between nasal MRSA carriage and the chances of systemic infection has not been resolved, they added.

            Previous studies have shown that tea and coffee have antimicrobial properties when applied topically, and to find out whether drinking the beverages had systemic effects the researchers turned to the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

            The analysis included 5,555 individuals ages 2 and older, representing 182.1 million people. About half (48.6%) reported consuming hot tea over the past month and 60.8% reported drinking coffee over the past month.

            Overall, 1.4% of the participants carried MRSA in their noses.

            After adjustment for age, race, sex, poverty status, current health status, hospitalization in the past 12 months, and use of antibiotics in the past month, there were lower odds of nasal MRSA carriage among individuals who drank any amount of hot tea (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.71), coffee (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.93), or both (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.70), compared with those who drank none.

            A separate analysis of just the adult participants provided similar results.

            Consumption of iced tea, however, was not associated with nasal MRSA carriage. The reason is unclear, but it could be that iced tea has lower levels of polyphenolic compounds than hot tea, or that the volatile antimicrobial compounds in coffee and tea reach the nose in vapor form, according to the researchers.

            Although the study — cross-sectional in design — could not establish a causal relationship between drinking coffee and tea and nasal MRSA carriage, there are some possible mechanisms to explain the finding.

            “In the case of coffee, particular attention has focused on the potential antibacterial properties of trigonelline, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl,” Matheson and colleagues wrote. “For tea, attention has focused on the antimicrobial properties of tannic acid and catechins.”

            In addition, they wrote, drinking both coffee and tea decrease iron absorption, which could affect the growth of S. aureus.

            The authors acknowledged that the study was limited by the exclusion of some individuals because of missing data and the inability to determine when the participants last drank coffee or tea.

            They noted that the study could not address the larger question of whether nasal MRSA carriage is associated with systemic infection.

            “Given this debate, the benefits of any treatment for MRSA nasal carriage should be carefully balanced against the risk,” they wrote.
            NHANES is conducted and supported by the CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics.

            The authors reported that they had no conflicts of interest.

            Primary source: Annals of Family Medicine

            Source reference:
            Matheson E, et al “Tea and coffee consumption and MRSA nasal carriage” Ann Fam Med 2011; 9: 299-304.

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